The administrative history of the village
In the 19th century each three settlement belonged to the township Érmellék of the county Bihor . But at the end of the century by the split of the township of Secueni and Valea lui Mihai, Cherechiu and Târguşor gets to the township of Secueni , and Cheşereu to the township of Valea lui Mihai.
The change of authority from the year 1919 still keeps the township for a while under the name of plasă (Romanian word meaning small rural district ). So in 1920 first they are phonetically transcripted to Cherechiul mic and Asonvaşar (from the Hungarian Kiskereki and Asszonyvására ) and they belong to township plasa Săcheihid ; Cheşereu (the Hungarian name is Érkeserű ) is transcribed to Chişireu , and remains in the township of plasa Mihaifalău .
In 1925 the northernmost part of the county, the township of Valea lui Mihai is attached to Sălaj county , that is why in the year 1930 Cherechiu and Târguşor are mentioned by their Romanian names as belonging to the plasa Sacueni of the township of Bihor county, and Cheşereu figures as belonging to plasa Valea lui Mihai of Sălaj county.
This division of the townships is maintained even during the four years of the Hungarian domination: Cheşereu continues to belong to Valea lui Mihai, not only territorially but also economically. The building of the planned highway intercepting Cheşereu and leading to Valea lui Mihai fails though, somehow predicting the isolation (as the village is avoided by the railways as well as by the highways) and it later becoming a village.
In 1950 the county-system ceases; it is replaced by the region- (in Romanian regiuni ) and rayon-system (in Romanian raion ). This is when the township of Valea lui Mihai is eliminated and instead it is created the rayon of Secueni at the north of Bihor County . Cherechiu, together with Târguşor, and Târguşor individually belonged to the rayon Secueni.
First, from the year 1952 Bihor County gets to be the part of the Oradea region (in Romanian: Regiunea Oradea ), later, from the year 1956 belongs to Crişana region (in Romanian: Regiunea Crişana ).
In 1961, the ceased rayon of Valea lui Mihai is attached to Marghita. In 1966 it also belong to the rayon of Marghita the village Cherechiu ( comuna Cherechiu ) set up of Cherechiu and Târguşor, respectively the independent Cheşereu ( comuna Cheşereu ).
In 1968 due to the administrative reform not only the system of the counties is restored, but Cheşereu is also attached to Cherechiu.
The history of Târguşor
After the Settlement of the Magyars, at the Érmellék settles the Gutkeled stem coming from Transdanubia. The Hunt-Poznans get minor estates between Secueni and Târguşor. The major part of the Érmellék does not get to distribution, it is kept being regal property. Even among these regal properties have an important role the villages belonging to the queenly property: Târguşor, Salacea, Buduslău, Văşad and Pişcolt.
According to some historical data, the old name of Târguşor (the Hungarian name is Asszonyvására ) has been Boldog-Asszony-Vására (translated from Hungarian it means: Blessed Virgin Mary's Fair ) but it was also known as Asszonyharcz (Hungarian: woman-fight ). With the expansion of the reformation the Boldog attribute (meaning: holy or blessed ) vanishes. Its name comes from its fair and from its owner, the queen.
Most of the settlements named after Boldogasszony ( Blessed Virgin Mary ) get the ending -falva ( 's village ); but the endings: -telke ( 's land ) and (egy)háza ( 's church or 's house ) also occur. In the case of Asszonyvására the ending -vására is one of a kind, but it can occur as a prefix as for example in the name of the settlement from the Hungarian Fejér County : Vásárboldogasszony and in the name if its church.
The earliest known data about Târguşor originates from a warrant from the years 1203/1342/1356/1477, which has been rewritten many times, and in which the it is mentioned as Foro Reginae (or Forum Reginae in nominative case), meaning: the queen's fair . This Latin name of the settlement shows that the Hungarian word asszony (originating from the Alan language; meaning woman ) in the age of the Árpáds' domain has the meaning of mistress, princess, queen . In some religious documents it is mentioned by the name: Forum Virginis and Forum Dominae.
Each place name that has in its name the word asszony (as for instance: Asszonyfalva, Asszonylaka, Asszonynépe, Asszonytelek, Asszonypataka and so on) has been related to the property of the queen by the time of its foundation.
Nowadays one may still find similar place names ending in -vásár (meaning: fair ) in Transylvania . The prefix of these points to the owner of the place where the fair has been kept, just like in the case of Balavásár (1325 Balavasara; 1482 Balawasar) laying northwest from Sighi şoara, or Sárvásár (1391 Saluasara; 1399 Salwasara; 1666 Sárvasara) near Huedin.
In the 13th century, due to its custom Târguşor is the most precious village of the neighbourhood , so when the king donates the fair-customs from Biharia, Békés and Z ărand to the church of Oradea , he keeps this one for himself .
Along the history , the name of Târguşor changes as it follows until it gets its final form : 1203 Forum Reginae; 1268 Ahzunwasara; 1272-1290 Azunvasara; 1332-1337 Assumhari (=Azzunvasari); 1357 Azunvasara; 1435 Azzonwasara; 1598 Azzonivasara; 1614 Asszonvására; 1692 Aszszony Vására / Alzson Vassary; 1773 Aszszony-Vására; 1808 Asszonyvására; 1828 Asszony Vására; 1851 Asszonyvására; 1863-1890 Asszonyvásár; 1913 Asszonyvására; 1944 Asszonyvására (Târguşor).
In former times the village was not located on its current place, but along the road leading to Secueni, hence the É r , which was called Malomgáttő (it means mill-dam base , and the name comes from the fact that there was a mill on that area of the É r river) and Kenderszer ( kinder meaning hemp , it comes from the hemp fields of the village). The old village has two streets: one leading towards Kengyelér, the other towards the current village. Later the old village is called Puszta-hely (meaning bare place ). The reformed church, and very likely the ancient medieval sanctuary too stood here on this old village until the 17th century. Beyond the Ér there was also an earth-castle once.
Before the Tatar migration from the year 1241, which destroys the village, it is inhabited by royal guards and some Tavernicorum regalium magister (a sort of a royal chancellor) . In 1268 king Béla IV decides to divide this property giving the northern part, owned by the extinct royal guards ( preconum ) to Marcell, and the southern part, once owned by the royal Tavernicorum regalium magisters ( tauarnicorum ) to Jakab (who was a Tavernicorum regalium magister himself).
It is said that the rest of the inhabitants found refuge in the moorlands and around the place called Aggpincék. The villagers lived for a little while in Kopasz-hely too, until the provostry of Prémontré expropriated the place. Because of the Turk havoc, the inhabitants of the village took refuge in the valley.
The new village called terra Ahsunvasara is built on its current location in 1268.
King Ladislau IV takes sojourn here many times; between 1272 and 1290 there are many warrants made out here, among them the one in which he declares the disloyalty of Dorogfi Miklós, the lord of Diosig.
In the 14th century the priest of the village is mentioned by the pontifical tithe-register. In 1336 and 1337 he priest of the settlement paid only 4 - 4 coppers, which means that it has been a small-mediocre village.
In 1436 one may meet mostly the Blasi and Fekete last-names. The remainder serf-registers prove that the inhabitants of the settlement have always been Hungarian people.
From the year 1461 there were mentioned the names: Adam, Achady, Bartha, Bodogh, Chokaly, Domby, Fanckikay, Feyer, Fekethe, Kerekes, Keresy, Koly, Magas, Pap, Parlaghy, Zabop, Zewch, Zenay (of Hungarian origin); Braxe, Fistulator, Mod, Pastor, Sutor, Thoth (of uncertain origin).
According the records of the reformed church the reformation starts to spread soon after the Battle of Mohács in 1526. The presbytery vanishes in 1552, and it is restored only in 1784.
In 1552 Târgu ş or is made up of 26 serf-parcels and is the chapter-property of Saint Stephen. In the tenth-register from the year 1569 there are already mentioned 24 Hungarian serf inhabitants and it has a secular owner: Salgay Bálint. The last names registered are: Balassy, Chatho, Chjonthos, Dersy, Fekethe, Gal, Hegy, Kerekes, Cristoph, Lawas, Nagj, Oswald, Pap, Peley, Peel. In 1570 there are already registered some new Hungarian last names too: Dombay, Eles, Jakab, Kathona, Kerek, Pal, Petes, Sos, Zabo, Zwcz, Vylaky.
In 1528 prince Báthory István donates Târgu ş or to Fráter I. Pál. About the year 1600 Fráter István builds a castle, which, together with the mansion later (sometime before the year 1848, when it is already the property of the order) is going to be donated to the Premonstratensian Order by Fráter IX. Pál (1807-1867), the clerk of Bihor County . Besides the nowadays quite ruined castle from Târgu ş or there are to be found mansions of the Fráter family also in Simian, Galospetreu and Ciutelec.
In 1609 prince Báthori Gábor donates property to Nagymaróthy Komornyik János from Târgu ş or.
Prince Rákóczi György I (1630 - 1648) was very fond of fishing: he furnished a little lake near Târgu ş or nourished by the Ér for sturgeon-breeding .
There were whole villages burned down and desolated due to the fights with the Turks and the havoc of the troops of the Kaiser. By the time of the census from the year 1692 the village is mentioned as being uninhabited for eight years. By this time Nádaskay Ferenc is the owner of the village, but he sells one half of the settlement to Butti Farkas, a clerk from Szolnok , and the other half to Szántó Ferenc.
In 1715 there are 23 families living in the village. In 1720 all the inhabitants of the village are Hungarian serfs.
The census of the noblemen from the years 1740 70 mention the names of: Paulus Nagy, Andreas Nagy, Petrus Nagy and Samuel Nagy.
By the time of the census from the year 1770 there are 79 free serfs, 1 free landowner, 48 free cotters (lat. inquilinus) and 8 houseless cotters (lat. subinquilinus) on the 16 properties of the provostry.
In 1774 there is founded the Roman Catholic school and later in 1784 the parish.
By the time of the first Hungarian census in 1784 there are 207 houses, 1140 inhabitants, of whom 2 priests, 11 noblemen, 67 peasants, 76 citizens or heirs of peasants and 147 cotters.
In 1790 it is built the reformed church, used even in our days.
In 1828 Târgu ş or has 194 houses and 1168 inhabitants.
By the time of the War of Independence from the years 1848 49 the inhabitants of Târgu ş or donate 38 shirts, 41 footwears, 3 sheets, 50 towels and 5 and a half sing of canvas (about 3,421 meters ) to the soldiers defending the country. The archdeacon of the parish from É rmellek is Kurthy Sándor, the reformed priest of the village, an ardent devotee of the revolution.
In 1851 the settlement is mentioned in the geographical dictionary of Fényes Elek by its current name: Asszonyvására (Târgu ş or). The gazetteer from the year 1877 mentions: 911 reformed and 125 catholic inhabitants.
In 1895 the Premonstratensian Order builds a church in Târgu ş or.
There are 1280 the inhabitants in 1850; 1062 in 1857; 1076 in 1870; 1093 in 1880; 1135 in 1890; 1186 in 1900 and 1197 in 1901. In 1900 there are only 13 inhabitants who are not of Hungarian nationality. In the 1930's the number of the inhabitants decreases to fewer than one thousand people.
The history of Cheşereu
There are numerous archeological founding places from the antiquity in Cheşereu: tools from the Stone Age, burial-ground and artifacts from the Bronze Age, the ruins of an earth castle and of a settlement, artifacts from the Roman Age, Sarmatian, Gothic, Gepid and Avar burial findings.
The Érmellék is an inhabited territory from the Árpád-Age; but according to some assumptions Che ş ereu is inhabited for 4000 years.
We meet the name of the settlement for the first time in 1215, when in the Registrum of Oradea (VarReg 141.) it is mentioned by the name: Quesereu . By this time it is the chair of summoner Lőrinc ("Laurentius de villa Quesereu") and it is a royal property.
During the history the name of the settlement is changed into: Quesereu in 1215; Kueserev in 1236; Keseru in 1284; villa Keseru in 1291-94; Keserew in 1307; villa Keserew, Kesereu in 1310; Kezereu in 1323; villa Keseres in 1332; villa Keserev in 1337; Kesereu in 1355; Keserew in 1400; Keserew in 1435; Kesereő in 1598; Kesserű, Keszerü, Kessery in 1692; Er-Kesserű in 1773; Keserü (Ér-) in 1808; Ér Kesserü in 1828; Ér-Keserü in 1839; Ér-Keserű in 1851; Ér-Keserü in 1893; Ér-Keserű in 1900; Érkeserű in 1913 and Érkeserű (Cheşereu) 1944.
Its name comes from the combination of the words " kis erű " (meaning owner of a little creek ); its origination from the word " keserű " (a Hungarian archaism for artesian-water ) is less probable. The origin from Kis-Ér , Kis-Erű may be more probable even because at the neighborhood of Cherechiu ( Kiskereki could be translated as little Kereki ) there was another settlement called Nagykereki (could be translated as big Kereki ) by the time of the Tatar havoc. There are other settlements with similar names, as for example: the steppe called Keserű westwards from Derecske (a settlement in Bihor County ), destroyed in the middle ages; and the then already village Keserűtelek (in Solt county) on the northwest from Kalocsa.
Those who gave its name were surely Hungarian people, while the names of the surrounding settlements are of Slav origin: Salacea ( Szalacs), Buduslau (Bogyoszló), Tarcea (Tarcsa), Simian (Semjén), Kenéz, şilindia (Selénd), Ciocaia (Csokaly), Léta, Bagamér.
In the first part of the 13th century King Béla IV (1235 - 1270) donates Cheşereu to a member of the Osl-progeny, possibly to Petur de Kueserev , who later in 1236 is going to be mentioned between the members of the delegation charged with the recuperation of the properties donated by his father, as the judge who recovers the castle property. In his geographical dictionary Fényes Elek mentions him by the name Keserűi Péter ; it is very likely that the author named him after the village and his estate.
From the year 1284 it is the property of the family from Che ş ereu belonging to the Osl progeny. It is very probably that the Osl-progeny came to Bihor County in the 1230's from Transdanubia; Benedek, one of the family members has been the bishop of Oradea between 1231 and 1242. By this time it is the property of Miklós, the son of Lampertus and Miklós, the son of András.
It is said that during the Tatar havoc the village has been located in a part of Nagysziget , on the place called Faluhely ( boonies ); the inhabitants of the village took refuge from the enemy to this forest surrounded by reedy. But this theory is not conformed by the archeological findings. The destroyed village is rebuilt in its current place, and its oldest part is Tökmata .
By the time of king Nagy Lajos (1342 1382) the miter Oradea also gets a part from the village. The chapel surrounded by the graveyard of the village was probably located on the high ground called Püspökdomb . There were found the ruins of a chapel (very probably destroyed by a fire) from the 14th century on the top of the Püspök-halom also at the excavations lead by Andrássy Ernő. Outside the walls of the chapel between the remains of an oaken coffin, there were found the mortal remains of a woman with a silver coin from the time of king Nagy Lajos in her mouth.
In 1350 it is declared to be city, along with Satu Mare and Salacea.
In 1366 master Jakcs gets the village as royal gift, replacing the extinct Osl-progeny; the name of the place called Jakacsi-domb ( the hill of Jakacs ) is a reminiscent of him or his descendants.
The parish of the village from the middle ages was smaller. The Episcopal tithe of the settlement in the 13th century (1291 - 94) is only 10 kepe, and even so it is paid only for the second time. Being a small settlement it does not pay ecclesiastical taxes in money or bounties. During the 14th century it might also been only a medium-sized village. After that in 1332 it is enacted the collection of the pontifical tithe, in 1333 the priest Péter, and in 1336 and 1337 the priest Mátyás pays 6 coppers each; by that time the priests of the villages usually paid between 2 and 9 coppers for pontifical tithe.
In 1436 there were the: Balogh, Beches (Békési), Zathmary (Szathmáry) names of Hungarian origin existing in the village . The names of Hungarian origin in the year 1459 were: Adony, Almosdy, Balogh, Borzay, Beulchy (Bölcsy), Chepay (Csépay), Dorog, Fekethe, Gyerghfy (Györgyfi), Halaz (Halász), Heghy (Hegyi), Kadar, Kereky, Kechy (Kécsy), Kouacz (Kovács), Keumez (Kőmez?), Layos, Letay, Molnos, Alaymereo (Olajmérő), Ethwes (Ötvös), Pethny, Soos, Zekel (Székely), Zylagh (Szilágyi).
In 1453, by the time of Ladislau V ( V. László ) the bishop of Oradea is confirmed in his estate of Che ş ereu.
In the census from the year 1552 Horváth Péter is mentioned as the owner of the village. About this time, by the time of Secueni and Diosig's reformation, breaks in the Reformation to Che ş ereu too. In 1560 all the inhabitants of the village are reformed. The earliest known reformed priest of the village is Laki Márton , ordained in 1600. The reformed inhabitants have one-faith school from the year 1587.
In 1552, by the first tax-census, still before the Turk havoc there are recorded: 44 houses in Che ş ereu, 26 houses in Târgu ş or and 6 houses in Cherechiu.
The Hungarian originating names in usage in 1552 are: Baghi, Balogh, Boros, Beolchi (Bölcsi), Buza, Cheoghi (Csögi), Chengeri (Csengeri), Dayka, Dobos, Fekete, Gal, Georgy, Hegedws (Hegedűs), Hegy, Kis, Kochis (Kocsis), Kouachi (Kovácsi), Kozoros (Koszorús), Mako, Mester, Nagy, Negyvoelgy (Nagyvölgyi), Sas, Zabo (Szabó), Zathmary (Szathmáry), Zenthbarath (Szentbarát), Ziuos (Szívós?), Tholdy, Tolnay, Vnoka (Unoka), Vincze, Veoreos ( Vörös ) . Among the names from the 15th and 16th century there are not to be found those signing the people belonging to the same social group; the still frequent names: Sas , Lovas , Nyéki , Fürj and Gábor are very likely of noble origin.
In the first part of the 17th century the Fráter family gets an estate in Che ş ereu, by the time they are the most important patrons of the reformed church. They are the donators of the first ecclesial objects and of the church bells.
Fráter István is t he page of honor of the chancellor in Ip and Che ş ereu, later the constable of the Bocskay castle in Sâniob until 1605; between 1605 and 1629 he is judge in Transylvania, and in 1606 he is the secretary of Bocskay. After he gets Nagyselind and Fancsika (1605) from Bocskay, Ciutelec, Rogoz and Bélmez ő (1608) from Báthori Gábor, Bethlen Gábor donates him Che ş ereu together with the steppe called Barát-Püspöki (1624) and the right to use the prefix érkeserűi (meaning of Che ş ereu ). In spite of the fact that by his marriage with Suselith (originally: Susalith) Horváth Ilona he gets it as dowry, but the Horváth family has spear side, so he gets the settlement from the prince as a reward for his loyalty. The estate that he gets as a donation from Bethlen Gábor at the same occasion must have been also a part of this dowry.
Pethő Miklós and his wife, "Susaki" Horváth Zsófia the elder sister of Horváth Ilona, the wife of Fráter István , and (Guthy) O rszág Borbála and her third husband, Geszthy Ferenc are the donators of the silver-plate made in 1634, from which in 1804 the reformed community casts a silver cup.
Bélmezei Fráter Pál II , the descendant of Fráter István (who later in 1654 is chosen by Rákóczi György II to be his constable and donates him an estate in Bélmez ő ), after he gets rewarded by Rákóczi György I with the tithe-income of Che ş ereu in 1631, settles down in Che ş ereu together with his wife, Barcsay Anna of Nagybarcsa, originating from the Transylvanian royal family.
By the time of the Turk havocs, but also in the Kuruc times the village is protected by the moor. The village is saved by the time of the havoc lead by the bey of Gyula in 1573. By the time of the campaign lead by the Pasha Szejdi in Secueni in the year 1600, the inhabitants of the village take refuge in the moorland of Nagysziget for a longer period of time.
While (according the first tax-record) in 1552 Che ş ereu has 44 houses, in 1692, after the great escape, the censors find only 8 inhabitants. In 1692 the owners are: Joannes Szakmari, Stepahnus Mincze (Wincze), Stephanus Kovacz, Georg Balogh, Gregorius Balogh, Michael Doka, Michael Szász, Joannes Sixai. During the Turk domination and even after the ceasing of the subjection Buday István , the clerk of Bihor County, and the later a Kuruc general is the landlord of Che ş ereu.
In 1715 residents of Chesereu and Váncsod go to Öcsöd.
According the census from the time of the Pragmatica Sancto there are 19 taxpayer cottar and tributary families in 1715 and 28 serf families in 1720. This could be approximately half of the inhabitants, because the smallholder noblemen could not be taken into account by tax paying. The urban census from the year 1720 record the names of the following tax-payer families: Sas, Szathmári, Nagy, Tót, Túri, Oláh, Vincze, Balajti, Szakács, Fekete, Sidó, Létai, Kovács, Barta, Balogh, Szabó, Kardos, Gábor, Ökör, Lénárt .
After that there is built a chapel between the years 1740 and 1744, in 1755 the Roman Catholic vicarage is reorganized. A small bell is cast in the year 1743 that nowadays is still to be found in the tower of the new catholic church.
The first notes of the reformed church register are from the year 1765; those of the catholic church register are from 1773. They are considered official documents until 1895, after that the civil parish register is going to be the official one.
In the census from the years between 1741 and 1776 there were mentioned the following noblemen is Che ş ereu: Balogh János, István and Mihály; Csatári Gáspár, István, János, Károly and Ferenc; Csordás István; Dávid Károly, György, Ferenc and Mihály; Győri László; Kis György, Ferenc, László and Sámuel; Nyéki János, István and Mihály; Rétsei István; Surányi István, János and Sámuel; Szabó István and Sámuel; Szilágyi László .
There is a census about the taxpayer noblemen made after the order in council of Maria Theresa of Austria in 1767 to clarify the relation between the landlords and serfs and to regulate the taxes, and record them in the so-called Urbarium . In Che ş ereu there is a census about the taxpayer noblemen in 1770; according to this document the landlords of the village were: Buday László, Fráter László, Irinyi György, Gazsi Jánosné, Andrássy György, Buday Péterné, Goda Antal, Buday Ferenc, Pongrácz Gábor, Erős György, Józsa Miklós, Józsa István, Nagy Sándorné and Sághy Mihály. By this time there are three mills in the village.
It is almost impossible, that Che ş ereu has been totally avoided by the repeated dangers. But there is not mentioned any cue about such memories, if only not the escape from the Tatars to Nagysziget, which might originate from that time and not from the year 1241. There is not maintained the memory of the victorious war in Á lmosd, lead by Bocskai in the year 1604. The memory of the participation in the rebellion lead by Rákóczi Ferenc II and the war of independence from 1848 is also missing. writes Márton Béla in his monograph entitled The description of Che ş ereu ( Érkeserű leírása [Debrecen, 1943.] ).
In 1800 the reformed community augments the ancient church, it is by this time that the east part of the church is built.
The census of the taxpayer noblemen from the year 1828 mentions 193 copyholders, among them: 44 serfs, 113 cottars, 36 houseless cottars, 2 craftsmen and a tradesman. The list about their names and number: 20 Gábor ; 15-15 Sass , Kiss and Szathmáry ; 1 0-10 Létai , Lovas , Vincze ; 7 Nagy ; 5 B. Nagy ; 6 Lengyel ; 5-5 Szilágyi , Kardos ; 4-4 Csorba , Balajti , Jakó , Szentmiklósi ; 3 Jánki , 2-2 Sztrankovich , Balás , Kovács , Juhász , Papp , Szakács , Váradi , Molnár , Király , Cser ; 1-1 Máthé , Für , Fürj , Nemes , Szűcs , Tóth , Ladányi , Orosz , Kopasz , Frank , Szegedi , Wallenstein , Balla , Katona , Munkácsi , Illyés , Fodor , Joger , Birkai , Szabó , Kosa , Rósa , Farkas , Medvés , Izrael , Salamon , Csorján , Törő , Jeremiás .
It seems, that Jewish families settling down in Che ş ereu already in the year 1820, as it results not only from the census of the taxpayer noblemen from the year 1828, but also from a census from the year 1829, that mentions three Jews in Che ş ereu: Lebli Isák, Burger Ferentz, Vallenstein Ferentz .
By the to time of the revolution and war of independence from 1848 49 the sheriff Fráter Ferenc joins the national defender forces. According to decision number 7 taken by the meeting of the reformed presbytery on the 13th November 1848, the teacher Dorkó Miklós voluntarily joins the national defender forces and is killed in the battle against the Ráces by Nagybecskerek. By the request of his father there were paid his annual salary.
In 1849 the reformed community donates a bell in purpose of cannon casting. The inhabitants of Che ş ereu also donated undergarment to the national defender soldiers: 39 shirts, 22 footwears, 8 sheets, and 16 towels, respectively Újvári Nina and Biri 4 fonts of lint. It was also born in Che ş ereu Boronkay Ferenc (1821 - 1874), originating from the noble family of Zemplén, who was a captain of the national defender by the time of the war of independence, and in 1867 a member of the national defender association of Bihor County. In 1849 the cholera breaks out so intensively that, according to the reformed parish registry, there were buried 122 dead only by the end of July.
At the beginning of the 19th century the landowners are: Nemess Ádám, Németh Albert, Fráter Lajos and László, Kazinczy Viktor and Sándor , the Péchy and the Semsey families.
After the war of independence there are 40 landowners in Che ş ereu originating from the Fráter stem.
In 1943 Márton Béla writes: the Fráter castles has been on the Kastélysziget, but it has been destroyed long ago. Some scrap getting to the surface, and the fact that the place is still called castle proves the existence of the building . Fényes Elek writes already in 1854 about: the remains of a castle caught into an island .
By 1854 Che ş ereu having 2300 inhabitants, has 8000 holds of land, from which: 5000 h. ploughland, 1500 h. meadow, 1000 h. pasture, 100 h. forest, 110 h. vineyard; 300 holds of moor and river meadow, but it also can be doubled. 1500 holds of it are copyhold property, the rest farm-stead .
The current roman catholic church is built between the years 1831 and 1840 on the place of a mill. There is a vault under the church, in which are buried the parish priest Hahóthi István died in 1806, respectively the donator of the land: Kraynikfalvi Kraynik Alajos , died in 1878, the landowner in Debrecen and Simian related to the Kazinczy family and his wife, Vajai Vay Júlia , who died in 1884.
While in the 1850's Fényes Elek mentions 2300 inhabitants (which is the largest number of inhabitants in Simian in spite of the pestilence), by the time of the census from the year 1869 there are 1490 of inhabitants, and by the next census in 1880 their number decreases to 1229. The annexation of Kiskeserű to Simian also contributes considerably to the decrease of the population (it is replaced by Béresi-, Lovas-, Lajter- and Szunyogh-).
At the beginning of the 20th century Márton Imre and Sándor , Kuthy Károly and baron Wangenheim Gyula have the largest property here.
The Hungarian gazetteer from the year 1913 mentions it under the name of Érkeserű that is going to serve as a base for the current official Hungarian form. The gazetteer mentions as part of Cheşereu some farms (in Hungarian it is tanya ), parts (in Hungarian it is tag ) too : Buday-tag, Cigány-tanya, Fráter-tag, Komoróczy-tag, Nyárfás-tag, Ödön-tanya, Ördögh-tanya, Répás-tag, Wangenheim-tag .
The Romanians entering on the 20th April 1919 first name it Chi şireu , and from the year 1920 the village is called Che şereu .
According the memorial tablet placed in the reformed church in 1958, there were 65 inhabitants killed in World War I, and 22 in World War II.
The Hungarian army marches in şilindia on the 5th September 1940, but it is only in 1943 that they manage to begin the building of the parish hall, the notary house and the Monument of the Heroes, because the donations collected and saved for many years were taken by the Romanians by the time of their evacuation from the village. The monument is hardly finished, when a Russian soldier slein by the inhabitants is buried near it. The monument still exists, but its memorial tablets have vanished long ago, so there is a popular error of many people that it is the monument of the Russian soldier.
The moorlands of Érmellék were drained in 1968 69. Unfortunately they did not succeed to declare a national reserve the Nagysziget from Che ş ereu. The fishing as main profession ceases together with a great range of conserved traditions and habits. In many ways Che ş ereu becomes much more open to the outside world, but it is kept as marooned from the world as by the time of the existence of the moor.
The streets of Cheşereu : Téglavető, Újsor, Kenderföld, Régi Újsor, Tökmata, Kis utca, Nagy utca, (Nemes)-Zug, Pernyés .
The history Cherechiu
The settlement is first mentioned in the year 1220 by the name of Kerequi.
During the history its name changed as it follows: 1220 Kerequi ; 1262 Kereky ; 1279 Kerchi ; 1284 Kerek ; 1291-94 Kereky ; 1333 Eghazaskerequi ; 1454 Felsewkereky , Alsokereky ; 1479 Naghkereky , Kyskereky ; 1552 Kis Kereki ; 1692 Kis Kereki ; 1851 Kis-Kereki.
According to the Regestrum of Oradea in 1220 Pousa accuses a man called Vnuka with the scorching of his house and the damage of 6 marks.
In 1262 there are three settlements called Kereki (the Hungarian name of Cherechiu): Tancs-Kereki (also called: Tancskereke), Nagy-Kereki (also called: Váralj-Kerekinek) and Kis-Kereki.
At the end of the 13th century Kiskereki is mentioned under the name of Egyházaskereki . In the 14th and 15th century Egyházaskereki and Felsőkereki , and later Nagykereki and Kiskereki are mentioned together. In 1357 they definitively split from each other.
Its name probably comes from the names from the Hungarian words kerek (meaning: round ) and kerék (meaning: wheel ). It was settled to its current location by the time of the Turk havocs; by that time this area was covered with forests, which were cleared to make room for the houses, plough lands and meadows. The name of the street Kiserdő (meaning: small forest ) keeps the memory of the one-time forest. It is said that the ancient village has been settled on the little island created by the Kér creek (in the so-called hemp-garden later called Telek ), that is where the name: Kis-kerek-i comes from.
In the 13th century it is the property of the Kereki family, the eldest landowner family of the Érmellék. In 1262 Kereki János buys the castles Adony and Vezend deserted by the Johannite crusaders. In 1284 János' daughter, the widow of Vgrin originating from the Zaah progeny gives a receipt to the relatives of her husband about the 15 marks and 5 servants given to her as widow-endowment
In 1279 Tamás, the priest of the village proceeds in Iriny as the trustee of the chapter of Oradea.
Between the years 1291 and 1294 it has three owners: Kereki János, Gáll and Mihály, which also meant the existence of three villages, while each of them pays the episcopal tithe separately. János first pays 86, then 42 kepe episcopal tithe, Gál pays 9 kepe and Mihály first pays 34, then 30 kepe. In 1311 the owners of the three villages mention Che ş ereu as their neighboring village.
Gálospetri gets its name after a member of the Kereki family named Gál (in Latin: Gallus). This fact is confirmed by the existence of a landowner called Gallus both in Kereki and in Petri in the year 1291.
At the end of the 13th century Felsőkereki splits from the settlement of the Kereki family and during the medieval ages is going to exist as an independent settlement.
In 1302 Kereki János transcribes the warrant about the settlements Adony and Vezend from the year 1262 and in 1321 his sons renounce to Gálospetri. The younger János loses Székelyhíd against the Gutkelend progeny in the year 1325.
In 1333 it is mentioned by the name Egyházaskereki, and it is in the property of the sons of Eleki Mihály: Tamás, István, Mihály and Elek.
In 1336 37 the priest called Gábor pays 5 5 copper pontifical tithe.
In 1357 there are already mentioned the places called Téglavető and Nagyér.
At about 1440 there is built a presbytery to the honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Nagykereki; by this time there was a chapel in Kiskereki.
In 1454 one may find the Pechy, Syle, Sypos, Zemes, Zewke names of Hungarian origin.
In 1530 Kiskereki becomes reformed, at the same time that Székelyhíd does. Its reformed school might already been organizes in 1540. In 1576 the village already has an organized reformed church. Right after the reformation there could already been a church on the Telek-domb , this fact is proved by the hints that could be still found in the 19th century, respectively the bricks that even nowadays are to be found. The second church, made of wood has been built in the new village and served the community for almost 50 years. The inhabitants of Véd and Apáthi took refuge in Cherechiu from the Turk attacks; it was by this time that the church needed to be extended with 9 meters.
In the year 1552 Cherechiu is made up of 6 crofts. The landlord is the Kereki family : László, János and Péter with 2 crofts each. After 1552 these are the property of the Zólyomis.
Nagykereki is totally destroyed by the time of the Turk battles, but Kiskereki survives. Somewhere at its neighborhood lied the village called Nagy-Ér , which might have already been destroyed at the beginning of the Turk occupation, because the census from the year 1552 does not mention it yet. At the end of the 13th century Nagy-Ér is mentioned as the property of Péter, the son of Dorog.
None of the names of the 11 inhabitants recorded by the census from the year 1599 figures in the census from the year 1692 (when there were recorded 8 households); which means that in only one century the inhabitants of the village were totally changed.
The village has originally been settled on the parcel called Bételek ( B-telek , Belső-telek , Régi telek meaning: B-land , inner-land , old land ); its inhabitants migrate to its current location by the time of the Turk domination (others say that already at the time of the Tatar havocs), by that time covered with sheltering forests.
In 1604 Bocskai István and his soldiers rout the troops of the Kaiser near Kiskereki. The brae, where the Kaiser's soldiers were buried is called German graveyard ( Német temet ő ).
In the 17th century it is called fiscal village, that can not be donated, and an ancient demesne that can only be put in pawn in special cases. For instance Szántó Ferenc , a landowner in Târgu ş or takes in pawn Kiskereki from the chamber of Kassa for 1000 forint.
In 1692 there are 8 households; the owners are: Stephanus Tivadar, Staphanus Pál, Andreas Csuka, Valentinus Szilaghy, Tompa János, Joannes Balogh, Joannes Szilagyi, Michael Aboni.
The number of the inhabitants increases very fast after the expel of the Turks. There are 14 taxpayer serfs registered in the year 1715, and 25 in 1720. The landowners of Che ş ereu and the neighborhood are: count Kevenhüller , Dietrichstein and the Stubenberg families.
In 1784 there are 729 inhabitants in 135 households; the owners are the heirs of the count Dietrichstein . The census records 1 priest, 4 noblemen, 68 ploughmen, 61 citizens or heirs of ploughmen and 67 cottars among the men of the village.
The new reformed church is built between 1801 and 1802. The first records in the parish register of the reformed church are from the year 1770. The oldest cup owned by the reformed community has been made in 1600; the 6-quintal big bell is from the year 1793.
In 1851 Fényes Elek mentions count Stubenberg as the owner of the village. Count has been the owner of Secueni and Cherechiu and the member of the Hungarian upper house.
In 1851 the number of the inhabitants reaches to one thousand, and in 1980 it decays under one thousand to 994 and from then it gradually decreases.
Its parcels are: Farkaszug, Kisdaru-Nagydaru, Perjés, Lepedős, Tölgyfasziget, Hosszúsziget, Samusziget, Völgyes, Duttyán, Kiskerek-erdő, Nagykerek-erdő, Bételek, Varsaszeg-puszta, Horgas, Borz, Kenderföld, Móka, Nagyhalom, Kesjerét, Paragi, Paprét, Mogyorós, Szélfenék, Szartó, Szipagy, Miklai, Egreskert, Kendereskert, Kis-szik, Kishalom, Öreghegy, Posa, Újhegy, Rozsamajos, Erdő.